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getting in any kind of supplies was so difficult that when the second winter came I went into town to buy myself a horse. On the way home I had to clear the road for us in many places where it was too narrow for my sleigh. I already had a cabin of sorts for myself, but there was no shelter for my horse, so I had to take him into the cabin with me. There was no being able to sleep that night, for it was bitterly cold and the wolves were howling and the horse grew frightened: I had to calm him down, and at the same time my life seemed to be so immense and so full of happiness, knowing I had a horse with which I could get around. A few decades later I owned a new Oldsmobile, and I was able to drive along fine highways, but the feeling of happiness was nothing compared to that night when I lived in the wilderness and my horse shared the cabin with me."


Arkkola school at St. Louis River. In front: Ailie Anderson, Ero Wuori, Sylvia
Stenbeck, Arthur Anderson, Gust Maki. Second row: Jalmer Mannila, Elmer
Mäki, Richard Sorvari, Albert Anderson, Hilma Sorvari, Eini Anderson.
In back: the teacher.

The vast forests, of course, fell prey to the lumbering firms. Logs were hauled by horse to the river's edge, floated down the river to the marketplaces. Before long a railroad was being planned, "a road that would extend all the way to Duluth." Work began, with the roadbed being cleared through the forest, the


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