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Kailas, Saima Harmaja, and Kaarlo Sarkia, who all died young. To a generation of poets still younger belong Katri Vala, Elina Vaara, Lauri Viljanen and Aaro Hellaakoski.

Many painters who had achieved fame early in the century continued to work well into the independence period. The best known among them were Pekka Halonen, Akseli Gallen-Kallela, Eero Järnefelt and Juho Rissanen. The period of repression immediately preceding World War I brought a strongly expressionist movement to Finnish art, and T. K. Sallinen was its major exponent, closely followed by the richly imaginative Marcus Collin. In addition, Sallinen's group, which at one time called itself the November Group, also included Juho Mäkelä, Jalmari Ruhokoski, Ilmari Aalto and Anton Lindfors, as well as Ragnar Ekelund and Eero Nelimarkka as close associates.

Sculptors who had earned early recognition and continued to be influential in the independence era were Ville Vallgren, Emil Wikström, Emil Halonen and Victor Malmberg. Among younger sculptors who have achieved fame are Gunnar Finne, Jussi Mäntynen and, especially, Wäinö Aaltonen, who is considered the outstanding representative of younger Finnish sculpture, and Kalervo Kallio, whose works are known as far afield as the United States. Of sculptors who have worked mostly in wood, Hannes Autere and Albin Kaasinen must be mentioned.

In sports the Finns have won worldwide fame during the independence period, although the basis for its achievements was made a little earlier, with victories in the Athens Olympics in 1906, London in 1908, and particularly the Stockholm games in 1912, when Finland proved that it belonged among the world's leading nations in sports. An intensified sports program with the beginning of independence brought even better results : in Antwerp in 1920, Paris in 1924 and Amsterdam in 1928, only the United States, with much larger teams, was able to win more points than Finland. The Finns also took part in the Los Angeles games in 1932 and Berlin in 1936, and as recognition for its place in the world of sports Finland was scheduled to be host for the Olympic Games in Helsinki in 1940. Although Finland had made all preparations for the games, war interfered, and it was not until 1952 that Finland was able to hold the games and leave its name permanently in the history of sports. 17

Such is Finland, the beautiful, the barren, land from whence they came, the Finns of Minnesota.

17. Korhonen, op. cit. I. Laati, "Itsenäisyysajan saavutuksia", II, pp. 542-5C2.


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