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attempt, by unidentified parties, to inflict bodily harm on one of the two men.

The authorities, for their part, had kept the socialists under surveillance. Many persons belonging to the IWW had been detained in various parts of the Middle West, but the most severe blow to the organization was a mass arrest which developed into a court trial known as the `Case of the 166.' Brought to trial in Chicago on 2 April 1918, they were accused of opposing the war, of trying to overthrow the government, of advocating violence and destruction of property. They were found guilty and were given long jail sentences. Among them were the following Finns: Fred Jaakkola, Charles Jacobson, Leo Laukki, William Tanner and Frank Westerlund, but with money collected by the Industrialisti defense fund these Finns were released under bail, pending their appeal. During this temporary freedom, Leo Laukki and subsequently Fred Jaakkola fled to Russia. 15

However, many Finns loyally fulfilled their obligations during World War I, and many of them from Minnesota lost their lives doing so, and in time the storm waves pro and con of this transitional period were calmed. And during World War II, of course, there was nothing comparable to the events depicted above.

The Duluth Bread Line: The depression years of the early 1930s forced municipal authorities in Duluth and elsewhere to take extensive measures to aid the great numbers of unemployed workers. One of the steps taken in Duluth was literally a bread line, established on Finnish initiative and sponsored by the local Kaleva Ladies and by the FAAC, which gave use of its hall, its restaurant and kitchen without charge. Elmer Stonewall served as chairman, Arthur Pelto as treasurer (succeeded later by Matt Tylli). Before Christmas, 1931, they had begun to solicit funds from local businessmen and local stores, and collected foodstuffs from area farmers. The cooperative central organization, in Superior, was also generous in donating foodstuffs. The county authorities donated $200 and Duluth municipal authorities $600. Matt Olson worked as cook, without pay, and in fact, no one involved in the undertaking was paid for his services. The Kaleva Ladies and FAAC members helped prepare the meals and served them, and they arranged an evening benefit at the FAAC hall to raise additional funds. Both of Duluth's Finnish papers, the Päivälehti and the Industrialisti, donated space free for the

15. Industrialisti, 23 June 1923


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