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smaller. In the rural, non-farming category, it was in 1940 a total of 153 men to every 100 women, and ten years earlier it had been 177. In urban areas, which would mean Duluth principally, the figure of men in both 1930 and 1940 had been 130.22


The Center o f the Finnish Cooperative Movement in the Middle West: Duluth's sister city, Superior, lies in Wisconsin, and as such the history of the Finns there does not belong in a history of Minnesota. But, as the center of the cooperative movement, it cannot be overlooked.

Louis Adamic wrote in his book, From Many Lands, that if one saw two Finns together one could be certain they were on their way to either a sauna or a cooperative store. Roland S. Vaile, Professor of Economics at the University of Minnesota, considers the cooperative movement in Minnesota to be the most significant in that field, and U. S. Labor Statistics state (1936) that 70% of the cooperative movement in the country is centered in Minnesota.

The first cooperative undertakings in the state were not made on Finnish initiative. Their origin goes back to the Grange movement, with more than 50 cooperative stores under the aegis of its Right Relationship League at the beginning of the century. During periods of labor strikes, temporary `cooperative institutes' were also started, to die again after they had served their immediate purpose, but they planted the seed from which the important Finnish cooperative movement got its start. The beginning was made by cooperative stores in Menahga, Virginia and Cloquet, and hundreds of others have followed. 23 The Finnish cooperative movement was based on English precedents, and in general there are European as well as purely Finnish aspects apparent in it.

In 1844 there was founded in Rochdale, a small industrial center in northern England, the first cooperative store, established on principles which have come down as "the seven Rochdale principles." In accordance with them, membership is open to all, with increased membership leading to a bigger turnover, and a bigger turnover bringing better prices for the consumer. Regardless of his investment, every member has but one vote in policy matters, unless an enterprise grows to such proportions that all

22. U. S. Census of Population, 1930 and 1940

23. WPA, Ms: Where Finns are, there also are cooperatives.


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