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actual campaign being involved, but it soon became customary for gifted speakers from one community to be invited to address meetings in neighboring communities. When the first Laestadian congregations were formed, they attracted many worshippers, and perhaps they could eventually have developed into a powerful group and a unified church if other factors had not been present to lead developments into other directions.

The Apostolic Lutheran Church: During the latter years of the life of the well known northern Finnish lay preacher, Juhani Raattamaa, a certain amount of tension began to build up between the western Laestadians and their eastern brethren. The town of Gellivaara, in Swedish Lapland, formed the center of the former trend, while the Torneo River valley and Northern Finland were the strongholds of the eastern wing. From the western center the immigrants brought to America their stern attitudes toward life, while the `conservatives' from the eastern areas were more liberal in various things like dress, etc. In America, the promised land of religious liberty, these differences became magnified and developed into disruptive factors. The Calumet Apostolic Lutherans, as the Laestadians began to label themselves, divided into two camps in 1888: one wing elected Johan Roanpää as pastor, the other wing Johan Takkinen. A number of friends of the latter then joined the `western' wing under the direction of Henrik Koleri, Olli Matoniemi, Matti Uuskoski and others, while another group under the influence of Torsten Estensen, Johan Henrik Lumijärvi, Kalle Ojala and others travelled the other road.

There was an attempt in Calumet, in 1908, to resolve the differences between these badly split Apostolic Lutherans, but the meeting resulted in a still further split, with a new movement born around the person of A. L. Heideman. There were several preachers of this wing in Minnesota, of whom William Alajoki, Isak Lamppa, Johan Pollari, Alex Puotinen and Pekka Raattamaa deserve mention. Of these men, Pollari went out still farther on his own, and he in turn attracted a group of disciples, of whom Minnesota members were Kristian Valter Isaacs (Kuoppala, also called 'Kuoppa Valteri'), Johan Koskela, Sam Kovala, Isak Lamppa (but only briefly), and Alex Puotinen.

With the failure of the peace meeting, home mission work was begun out of Calumet, directed to those areas where there was scant Apostolic Lutheran support: one phase of it took the form of the Kristillinen Kuukausilehti, a monthly religious journal which began publication in 1915, and was accompanied by the


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