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the IWW. Such had been the case in Embarrass, as in many other farming communities as well.

After World War I, the communists also made some headway in Embarrass. Inspired by these new teachings, a number of Embarrass Finns left for Russia. Among them were Väinö Laakso, Ed. Lindholm, and Lyyli and Toivo Ullakko.

Finally, there was also a temperance society in the community, affiliated with the state organization, and still active in the years after the workers' hall was destroyed and everything there had come to a halt. Very active for a time, also was the Embarrass Valley Townsend Plan Club, which Adolph Pernu served as chairman, Stephan Ilkka as vice-chairman, Miss Jacobson as secretary and M. Heikkilä as treasurer.

The last of the Embarrass organizations have been the Finnish aid committees. According to Halonen, the chairman of the local American committee was J. Anderson, while the Argo-Waasa Finnish committee was directed by Sam Laurila, with Mikko Järvi as vice-chairman, Wilho Peuramäki as secretary and William Koski as treasurer.

Finns in Community Life: Although Embarrass did not have an active civic club, the Finns, being in the majority, have filled many local positions. The first board of selectmen included Alex Palo, John Wilhelm Päivärinta and Frank Stohle. Supervisory posts have been filled by Andrew Wäisänen, Victor Helbacka, Henry Niemi and Nick Lehto. Eino Norha for 19 years, and Emil Mäki for 12, served as assessors, while both Toivo Hill and Kathryn Kangas served as secretary to the selectmen for two decades. In 1919 the Embarrass town officials included Erick Lehto as president of the board of selectmen, Nick Lehto and Matt Hill as supervisors, John Wäisänen and John Kangas as assessors, John Koski as treasurer, and A. Wäisänen and Charles Reinström as constables. Thirty years later we find Leo Hannula, John Palo, Elmer Koski, Kathryn Kangas, Art. Lamppa and Floyd Saranpää in the same positions. School committee members have included John Holm, M. R. Hannula, and Matt Ropponen. Two Embarrass Finns, Erwin Dorff and Elsie J. Norha, have gone on to teaching positions on the university level.

As local businessmen, the Finns have been well represented. The first of them was Isaac Lamppa, who began by operating the store owned by Henry Huhta of Virginia but who later had his own store and also became a lumber dealer. When the Finns first came here, there was a small store near the railroad station, also housing the post office business, owned by one Linnall. This


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