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Inc., which is an oil distributor, in which the Finns have participated.

Journalism and Literature : A center in so many respects, Minneapolis has also been a center for the printed word in Finnish. The fifth Finnish-American newspaper to appear, and the first of its kind in Minnesota, was the Uusi Kotimaa, ("The New Homeland") which began publication in August 1881, appearing first with a sample issue, in which the editors stated their program "The Uusi Kotimaa will be published in Minneapolis every Thursday. It will be liberal in every respect and will present to the best of its abilities useful, entertaining and morally suitable material, even longer novels, to increase the desire for reading among our fellow Finns, and to bring them the significant news from America and abroad. We shall try particularly to encourage our Finnish readers in this new country to preserve their national traditions and language, and as far as is possible, we shall inform them about conditions in this country."

The newspaper did change its day of publication from Thursday to Monday, and then from Monday to Saturday, but it did not change its program. Appearing first as a four-page paper, then with six pages, it did bring its readers the `longer novels' it promised, in serial form, novels with such titles as "The Wife He Deserved", "A Wife's Love", "There's No Place Like Home". Events in Minnesota and adjoining states were carefully followed, and other American news were given considerable space.

Subscription cost $2.00 the year in the United States, or 10 markkas per year to Finland, and subscribers were told that "a large group of people have joined to support this paper financially, so that subscribers need not fear they will be asked to give it support." The editor was August Nylund, who actually also owned the newspaper, although he had set up a corporation to supply financial support, a step most Finnish-American newspapers have had to follow at some phase in their existence. According to some reports, the "large group of people" supporting the Uusi Kotimaa were the churches, exclusively, and the newspaper was originally to have become their mouthpiece. That may have been so, but the newspaper very soon appeared to belong exclusively to its editor, who soon had to retreat from his proud words of financial independence, for after four months of publication the paper announced the establishment of an Uusi Kotimaa Association in Calumet, Michigan, and ended its appeal for members with the statement that "it is impossible to even


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