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hope at this stage that the paper will be able to exist with readers' subscriptions alone. The editors alone cannot assume responsibility for the paper's future but must rely on the support of assisting organizations." The Finnish population of Minneapolis was too small at that time to give any assistance, so in 1884 Nylund moved his newspaper to New York Mills, to a region where there were more Finns and more prospects of forthcoming help.

The Uusi Kotimaa was not the only attempt to publish a Finnish language newspaper in Minneapolis. In 1893 an "association" was established there to publish another weekly newspaper, the Amerikan Uutiset. Fred Karinen and August Edwards were its editors, but they were soon joined by a third man, Kalle Haapakoski. Within a year, however, exclusive ownership fell to Fred Karinen, and he transferred the paper to a region of a potentially larger circulation - to Calumet, Michigan.

In addition to these newspapers, a monthly, Lentäviä Lehtiä, appeared for a while before it was transferred to Duluth. Another periodical, the Kuvalehti, began publication in 1894.

During the period when he was still located in Minneapolis, Nylund published the following advertisement in the Uusi Koti maa : "Since there seems to be a general lack of books for the study of English by Finns living in America, the undersigned has planned to prepare a practical English grammar for beginners if there are subscribers enough to warrant publication of such a book." Apparently not enough subscriptions came in, since it was never published. However, there was enough interest, somewhat later, for Matti Lehtonen, Methodist pastor, to publish in 1910, his "Practical Finnish Primer for Finnish-American homes, Sunday schools and summer schools." A brief book, of some 30-odd pages, it sold for 10 cents, and the first edition of 3000 copies was sold out in three years. 31

In 1923, Betty Järnefelt-Rauanheimo wrote a 96-page religious book in English, A Mother's Farewell Letters, which was published by the Augsburg Publishing House in Minneapolis. In 1939, Elma K. Anderson published a pamphlet, Translations o f Finnish Songs, a collection of Finnish religious songs in English. A varied group of Finnish pamphlets have also been published in Minneapolis, including materials by authors working elsewhere: for example, the Cooperative Printing Association produced several printings

31. Lehtonen, M. Käytännöllinen suomenkielen lukemisen alkeisoppi eli uusi Aapinen Amerikan suomalaisten Koteja, Pyhä- ja Kesäkouluja varten. Minneapolis, Minn., 1910, and 2nd, corrected edition, Chisholm, Minnesota, 1918.


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