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that the maximum number of Finns may have been about 30, but they had no organized activities, aside from occasional visits by pastors of the Suomi Synod to hold services. Later, however, in 1927, there was established the Plummer Co-op Store, which joined the Cooperative Central in 1938, when its gross sales amounted to $4,000. For years the postmaster of Plummer was one Eli Joki.

The Finnish population of Red Lake County was 50 in 1920; 51 in 1930; 22 in subsequent census statistics.

Pennington County

A few Finns have lived in Thief River Falls, where there was also a People's Co-op Store, Inc. In the whole county, however, there were but 5 Finns in 1950.

Marshall County

Marshall, considerably larger than Pennington, lies directly north of the latter and extends to the North Dakota boundary. Almost in the direct center of the county lies Middle River, where the first Finns arrived in 1910 to settle lands they had purchased. This Finnish influx was begun by William Talkkari, who had procured almost a full section of land through the Pellervo Land Agency in Duluth. Others also held extensive lands: the Rantala family had almost a thousand acres, the Maijala family over five hundred, etc. The local correspondent of the Päivälehti (16 October 1914) described Finnish farming methods here as follows "There is a great deal of smoke in the air again, for several Finns once more are burning fields which have peat in them. They have found the simplest way to be to set fire to the bogs and let the peat burn away. This kind of burned land seems to grow well, giving particularly good crops of oats, barley and rye, as those who burned their fields last summer have found out. The Finns will insist on clearing their fields, whether it be by fire or whatever other means."

On 8 November 1914 the Päivälehti borrowed items from the Middle River newspapers, which claimed that "there was no faster growing community in all Minnesota than Middle River, and that the Finns have been a big factor in that growth." Regular postal service was established that same year, and Knute Olson "sold 12 automobiles, a fact which is being reported promptly,


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