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the Amerikan Uutiset and the Suometar, and in nearby Hancock (where the first Finnish-language newspaper had begun on 28 April 1876) there was then being published the Amerikan Suometar. To these was added the Päivälehti in 1901. Its first owner was Sanfrid Mustonen, and the printshop was under the direction of J. A. Harpet, who also worked in the editorial department. The first permanently employed writers were Eetu Aaltio and Aaro Jalkanen.

The Päivälehti, together with the Amerikan Uutiset, was soon bought by J. E. Saari. When the `Copper Island' saga seemed to be drawing to a close on the eve of World War I, the newspapers had to move to fresh fields, to more flourishing Finnish centers. It was then that Saari moved both of his papers to Duluth, where he already had the Siirtolainen. It was the Siirtolainen which, in its issue of 13 January 1914 made known Saari's plans: "Beginning on 2 February, the Amerikan Uutiset, the Päivälehti and the Siirtolainen will all appear in Duluth as papers of the Finnish-American Publishing Company, whose sole owner is J. Saari." The Päivälehti was to appear six days a week, the others once a week. The statement of policy declared that all three newspapers were independent of any political affiliation, did not represent the special interests of any religious sect, and would be completely neutral in every respect.

At the time the move to Duluth was made, the editors of the Päivälehti were Gust Sarvisto, Antero Riippa and Eino Kuutti, while A. O. Hurja was business manager, Jafet Marjamaa was bookkeeper, and typesetters included Väinö Pernu, Alma Männistö (Mrs. Lundquist), Kalle Ruuttila, Urho Toivola, William Peterson and Heikki Karhu, who later transferred to the writing staff (but then left the paper to return to Calumet), and printers were John Soronen and John Wäisänen, and circulation manager, George Langen. Only one change was in the offing, in spite of Saari's policy statement, and that was a change in ownership itself, which came within a few months.

This latest development stemmed back to a weekly paper, the Raittiuslehti (The Temperance Paper) which had begun publication in August 1913 (it bore, to be sure, the same name as an earlier paper, previously mentioned, but had nothing else in common with its predecessor), as an 8-page paper printed at the Siirtolainen presses. Its editor was Aarne Ervast, and its business manager, Hans Lankinen. By the end of 1913 the hope was expressed that the Raittiuslehti would soon appear at least two or three times a week, and many meetings to discuss this possibility


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