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1910. At that time there were 367 persons living there, many of them Finns. Later the population increased somewhat, but the Finnish percentage dropped when Finns moved elsewhere to find work after the Kinney mines were closed, in the years immediately after World War I.

Finns engaged in other than mining activities continued to live in Kinney in relatively large numbers. Their role in civic affairs deserves mention, for after William A. Nelson had served as the first selectman, the following Finns have also served in elective office : Victor Nylund, H. Hendrickson, August Johnson, Edward Eskola and Alex Niskanen. Oscar Kangas was a town employee, and local postmasters have been Ina Järvi and J. E. Turppa. Local policemen have included J. Field, O. Hendrickson, A. Muhonen, A. Mäki, Tomi Pukkila and J. Ramunen. Other Finns have made names for themselves also, with Reino and Walter Kangas, Mayme Merilä, Mayme Mäki, Ed. Nelson, Saima Niskanen and J. and V. Tikkanen as teachers, Impi Hill and Suoma Niskanen as nurses, Eino Field as architect, William Field as engineer and inventor, Yrjö Joki as attorney. One Kinney native, John Dick, was appointed to a diplomatic post in Spain.

In various business undertakings, Victor Salmi, Ivar Koski, August Johnson and J. Ramunen all had boarding houses; Heman Niemi, Isack Nelson, William Olson, Wäinö Mäki and Ed. Aho (who came from Chisholm) were grocers; Ivar Koski and Isack Honkanen owned coalyards; Eino Jylli sold fuel oils, and Gust Apuli and A. Tikkanen sold hardware.

A glance at organized Finnish activities in Kinney reveals an exception to the usual picture in that there was never a temperance society here. The first organization took the form of a congregation affiliated with the Suomi Synod. The parish dedicated its own, new church in 1915, and membership remained high up to the 1920s but after that has fluctuated between 20 and 30. Even after World War II its Sunday school still continued to have some 30 pupils in attendance.

If there was no temperance society there was, however, a workers' society, started in 1910 with 24 founding members. Membership grew to about 100 before the subsequent schism, which cut the figure back to about 50. Before this development, however, the society had built itself a rather pretentious hall, financed with loans from members but also requiring a bank mortgage. For a brief period there was flourishing activity, with choral groups, gymnastic teams, and the usual thespians, but in


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