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time the bank was forced to foreclose, and the building became a Catholic church.

In later years Kinney has had other Finnish groups, including a Civic Club organized in 1929, in which August Johnson, Urpo Hill, O. Kangas and Anton Lankanen have served as chairmen. During World War II the Finnish relief organization which came to life was served by Olga Niemi as chairman. The MFAHS chapter has been a joint one with neighboring Chisholm.


Balkan, to the west of Great Scott, was organized at a relatively late date. Local government was established in 1912, but the area did not receive its present boundaries until the following year when Chisholm and portions of Stuntz Township were annexed to it. Population in 1912 mounted to 75, of whom many were Finns, and a strong Scandinavian element has remained, as evident in a mere listing of Finns serving in elective offices Ed. Ahonen, Matt Boriin, Jacob Hakala, Ed. Heino, H. and S. Heiskanen, Eino Hendrickson, Elmer Jokinen, Richard Kallio, Edwin and Matt Krogerus, Gust Lake, John Luomala, Heino Mäki Jr., John Perry, John Salonen, Wäinö Suomi and Dan Tolonen.

Iron ore had been discovered in the Chisholm area in the 1890s, by E. J. Longyear, whose name is preserved locally with the lake named after him. Chisholm itself is named after Archie M. Chisholm, who once owned the entire area. The majority of the Balkan mines in subsequent years were those located in Chisholm and its immediate surroundings. One of them, the Shenango Mine, is among the deepest (350 feet) in the entire range. The important mines are


Mine:   Opened:

Production by 1956 (in tons):

Clark    1900



Chisholm    1901


(operations ended)

Croxton-Syme    1902



Glen    1902


(operations ended)

Hartley-Burt    1910



Leonard    1903



Leonard-Burt    1915



Monroe-Tener    1905



Shenango    1904

17,39 ,619


"When I came to Chisholm in the autumn of the year 1900," reminisced Edward Ahonen in an interview with E. A. Aaltio in 1950, "there were about 10 buildings here, with a lumberjacks' camp in the very center of what started to grow into a city. A few boarding houses were just outside, near the mines. More `,ban half the population were Finns, all of them young men who


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